There are five organised political groups within the Assembly:
- the Socialist Group (SOC)
- the Group of the European People's Party (EPP/CD)
- the European Conservatives Group (EC)
- the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE)
- the Group of the Unified European Left (UEL)
In addition, a small number of members do not belong to any political group.
Political groups must commit themselves to respect the promotion of the values of the Council of Europe, notably political pluralism, human rights and the rule of law.
To form a group, at least twenty members from at least six different national delegations have to decide to do so. Members of the Assembly are entirely free to choose the group they wish to join. Before deciding, they can attend meetings of one or several groups and should not be bound by their national party label but choose the group which best suits their political affinities.